Today, many people look beyond corporate earnings and consider environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues when making investment decisions. For example, some investors boycott manufacturers of tobacco products or firearms. Others prefer to invest in companies that are actively reducing their carbon footprints.
This trend has been accelerating for decades. In fact, ESG criteria is projected to drive one-third of global investments by 2025, according to Bloomberg, a financial analysis company.
How does your investment portfolio currently rate on these issues? If you haven't yet considered nonfinancial criteria in your investment strategy, you may want to conduct some research and consider making some adjustments to "put your money where your mouth is."
Here's a quick rundown on common ESG criteria:
A focus on ESG matters can possibly add value over the long run. For example, a company that focuses on the health and safety of its workers may have fewer lawsuits, lower insurance rates, fewer business interruptions and higher employee retention. Likewise, a company with a diverse board may be better able to recognize business opportunities and foresee emerging market threats than one with board members who have similar backgrounds and experience.
Does your current portfolio include investments in funds and companies that focus on ESG issues? The answer may require some research. Keep in mind that some managed portfolios (such as mutual and exchange-traded funds) may invest according to specific ESG criteria. For example, there are many fund options for investors who only want their money invested in environmentally conscious companies. Funds that invest based on conservative social or religious criteria are also available. Some of these avoid alcohol, tobacco and other stocks that violate the values outlined in their prospectuses.
Once you know where individual companies and funds stand on ESG matters, you may decide to shun certain ones — for example, a company with no racial diversity in its executive or board ranks or a mutual fund that buys firearms manufacturer stocks. Or you might shift your portfolio toward investing in companies and funds with lower ESG risks.
If you're investing in individual stocks, you can read public filings to find out what those companies say about their philosophy and operations. Currently, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) doesn't specifically require companies to provide investors with ESG information. But some information related to these risks must be disclosed under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in the following financial statement sections:
In addition to these disclosures, some companies voluntarily issue separate "sustainability" reports that cover a broad range of nonfinancial issues. Unfortunately, without uniform sustainability reporting standards, these reports can be very inconsistent.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is currently evaluating whether to create more detailed guidance on ESG reporting. In addition, an organization representing investment analysts, the CFA Institute, is developing a quality standard for companies that make claims about their ESG performance. The standard includes annual auditing of those claims by an independent reviewer.
Important: While most ESG investing involves stocks, investors can also buy "green" bonds and similar debt investments created to help finance a variety of revenue-generating environmental and social projects.
If you prefer the automatic diversification of investing in mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs), you can choose from thousands that claim to use ESG criteria. Prompted by the explosion in ESG investing, investment analysis companies have devised index benchmarks and ESG ratings to help you narrow down your choices.
For example, MSCI, a global provider of ESG-oriented investment products, offers hundreds of indices that help investors analyze ESG performance. These indices provide apples-to-apples comparisons so you can judge the performance of mutual funds, ETFs and individual companies based on their niche and objectives. Some indices track "broad spectrum" ESG investments, others focus on specific issues, such as carbon emissions or empowering women.
Another leading player in the global ESG research field is Systainanlytics (acquired in 2020 by investment research company Morningstar). Morningstar's analysis of ESG funds in 2020 arrived at mixed conclusions. On one hand, funds that tried to reduce ESG risk outperformed their benchmark indexes more often, and by larger margins, than funds without an ESG focus. On the other hand, what Morningstar describes as "intentional" ESG funds — those that "explicitly aim to advance ESG goals" — didn't demonstrate better performance than other funds simply on the basis of their "intentional" ESG strategy.
If you decide to adjust your portfolio to be more ESG-oriented, you have many options to choose from — and you probably won't need to sacrifice financial performance to achieve your nonfinancial goals. Contact your financial advisor for more information and strategies to help encourage companies to pursue socially responsible policies, practices and projects.
Investment strategies that consider environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues can be somewhat controversial. For example, under U.S. pension law, people who invest retirement fund dollars on behalf of fund beneficiaries are supposed to act prudently and solely in the best interest of those future retirees. A strict interpretation of that requirement might suggest ESG criteria shouldn't carry any extra weight in asset selection. The U.S. Department of Labor has gone back and forth on this matter trying to strike the right balance in its regulatory guidance.
In the early days of ESG investing, the emphasis, then called "socially responsible investing," was on affirmatively avoiding investments in "bad" companies. In recent years, more investing is based on minimizing "ESG risk." This term refers to the chances that a company that doesn't apply an ESG lens to its operations is more likely to run into trouble, with adverse consequences for the value of its stock.
Get in touch today and find out how we can help you meet your objectives.